American National Cherokee Indians (Tribes & Villages)

American National Cherokee Indians

Che'-ro'-kee' tribe. - Meaning unknown, but possibly from Creek tciloki, "people of a different speech." The middle and upper dialects substitute l for r. Also called:

All'-ig'-ewi' or Alleghanys, a people appearing in Delaware tradition who were perhaps identical with this tribe.
Ani'-Kitu'-hwagi, own name, from one of their most important ancient settlements, and extended by Algonquian tribes to the whole.
Ani'-Yun'-wiya', own name, meaning "real people."
Ban'-ia'-tho, Arapaho name (Gatschet, MS., B.A.E.).
Entari ronnon, Wyandot name, meaning "mountain people."
Man'-te'-ran, Catawba name, meaning "coming out of the ground."
Ochie'tari-ronnon, a Wyandot name.
Oyata'-ge'-ronon', Iroquois name, meaning "inhabitants of the cave country."
Shanaki, Gaddo name.
Shannakiak, Fox name (Gatschet, Fox MS., B. A. E.).
Talligewi, Delaware name (in Walam Olum), see Alligewi.
Tcaike, Tonkawa name.
Tcerokieco, Wichita name.
Uwatayo-rono, Wyandot name, meaning "cave people."

Che'-ro'-kee' Connections.- The Cherokee language is the most aberrant form of speech of the Iroquoian linguistic family.

Che'-ro'-kee' Location.- From the earliest times of which we have any certain knowledge the Cherokee have occupied the highest districts at the southern end of the Appalachian chain, mainly in the States of Tennessee and North Carolina, but including also parts of South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, and Virginia. (See also Arkansas, Kansas, Kentucky, Oklahoma, and Texas.)

Che'-ro'-kee' Subdivisions and Villages
There were anciently three Cherokee dialects which probably corresponded in some measure to the three groups of towns into which early traders and explorers divided the tribe. These groups, with the towns belonging to each according to the Purcell map, but following as far as possible the Handbook (Hodge, 1907, 1910) orthography, are as follows:

Che'-ro'-kee' Lower Settlements:
Estatoee, 2 towns:
(1) Old Estatoee on Tugaloo River below the junction of Chattanooga and Tuilalah Rivers, in Oconee County, SC;
(2) Estatoee in the northwestern part of Pickens County, SC
Keowee, 2 towns:
(1) Old Keowee on Keowee River near Fort George, Oconee County, SC,
(2) New Keowee on the headwaters of Twelve- mile Creek in Pickens County, SC, the latter also called probably Little Keowee.
Kulsetsiyi, 3 towns:
(1) on Keowee River, near Fall Creek, Oconee County, SC;
(2) on Sugartown or Cullasagee Creek near Franklin, Macon County, NC;
(3) on Sugartown Creek, near Morganton, Fannin County, GA
Oeonee, on Seneca Creek near Walhalla, Oconee County, SC
Qualatchee, 2 towns:
(1) on Keowee River, SC;
(2) on the headwaters of Chattahoochee River, GA
Tomassee, 2 towns:
(1) on Tomassee Creek of Keowee River, Oconee County, SC;
(2) on Little Tennessee River near the entrance of Burningtown Creek, Macon County, SC
Toxaway, on Toxaway Creek, a branch of Keowee River, S.C.
Tugaloo, on Tugaloo River at the junction of Toccoa Greek, Habersham County, GA
Ustanali, several towns so called:
(1) on Keowee River below the present Fort George, Oconee Gounty, SC;
(2) probably on the waters of Tuckasegee River in western North Carolina;
(3) just above the junction of Coosawatee and Conasauga Rivers to form the Oostanaula River in Gordon County, GA;
(4) perhaps on Eastanollee Creek of Tugaloo River, Franklin County, GA;
(5) perhaps on Eastaunaula Creek flowing into Hiwassee River in McMinn County, TN.; and
(6) possibly another.

Che'-ro'-kee' Middle Settlements:
Cowee, about the mouth of Cowee Creek of Little Tennessee River, about 10 miles below Franklin, NC
Coweeshee, probably between the preceding and Yunsawi.
Ellijay, 4 towns:
(1) on the headwaters of Keowee River, SC;
(2) on Ellijay Creek of Little Tennessee River near Franklin, NC;
(3) about Ellijay in Gilmer County, GA;
(4) on Ellejoy Creek of Little River near Marysville in Blount County, TN
Itseyi, 3 towns:
(1) on Brasstown Creek of Tugaloo River, Oconee County, SC,
(2) on Little Tennessee River near Franklin, NC;
(3) on upper Brasstown Creek of Hiwassoe River, Towns County, GA
Jore, on Iola Creek, au upper branch of Little Tennessee River, NC
Kituhwa, on Tuckasegee River and extending from above the junction of the Oconaluftce nearly to the present Bryson City, Swain County, SC
Nucassee, at the present Franklin, NC
Stikayi, 3 towns:
(1) on Sticoa Creek, near Clayton, Rabun County, GA;
(2) on Tuckasegee River at the old Thomas homestead just above Whittier, Suain County, NC; and
(3) on Stekoa Creek of Little Tennessee River, a few miles below the junction of Nantahala, Graham County, NC
Tawsce, on Tugaloo River, Habersham County, GA
Tekanitli, in upper Georgia.
Tessuntee, on Cowee River, south of Franklin, NC
Tikaleyasuni, on Burningtown Creek, an upper branch of Little Tennessee River, western North Carolina.
Watauga, 2 towns:
(1) on Watauga Creek, a branch of Little Tennessee River, a few miles below Franklin, NC;
(2) traditionally located at Watauga Old Fields, about Elizabethtown, on Watauga River, in Carter County, TN
Yunsawi, on West Buffalo Creek of Cheowa River, Graham County, NC

Cherokee Over-the-Hills and Valley Settlements, or Overhill Settlements:
Chatuga, 3 towns:
(1) on Chattooga River, on the boundary between SC. and GA;
(2) probably on upper Tellico River, Monroe County, TN;
(3) perhaps on Chattooga River, a tributary of the Coosa, in northwest Georgia.
Chilhowee, on Tellieo River in Monroe County, TN, near the North Carolina border.
Cotoeanahut, between Natuhli and Niowe.
Echota, 5 towns:
(1) Great Eehota, on the south side of Little Tennessee River, a short distance below Citico Creck, Monroe County, TN;
(2) Little Echota on Sautee Creek, a head stream of the Chattahoochee west of Clarksville, GA;
(3) New Echota, at the junction of Oostanaula and Conasauga Rivers, Gordon County, GA;
(4) the old Macedonian Mission on Soco Creek, of the North Carolina Reservation; and
(5) at the great Nacooehee mound. (See Naguchee below.)
Hiwassce, 2 towns:
(1) Great Hiwassce on the north bank of Hiwassee River at the present Savannah Ford, above Columbus, Polk County, TN;
(2) at the junction of Peaehtree Creek with Hiwassee River, above Murphy, NC, probably the Guasuli of the De Soto Chroniclers.
Natuhli, on Nottely River, a branch of Hiwassee River at or near the site of the present Ranger, Cherokee County, NC
Nayuhi, seems to have been the name of four towns:
(1) probably of the Lower Settlements, on the east bank of Tugaloo River, SC;
(2) on the upper waters of Tennessee River, apparently in North Carolina;
(3 and 4) in the same general region, the last three being mentioned by Bartram (1792).
Sitiku, on Little Tennessee River at the entrance of Citico Creek, Monroe County, TN.
Tahlasi, on Little Tennessee River about Talassee Ford in Blount County, TN.
Tallulah, 2 towns:
(1) on the upper Tallulah River, Rabun County, GA;
(2) on Tallulah Creek of Cheowa River in Graham County, SC
Tamahli, 2 towns:
(1) on Valley River a few miles above Murphy, about the present Tomatola, Cherokee County, NC;
(2) on Little Tennessee River about Tomotley Ford, a few miles above Tellico River in Monroe County, TN
Tellico, 4 towns:
(1) Great Tellico, at Tellico Plains on Tellico River, Monroe County, TN;
(2) Little Tellico, on Tellico Creek of Little Tennessee River about 10 miles below Franklin, NC;
(3) (also called Little Tellico at times) on Valley River about 5 miles above Murphy, NC;
(4) Tahlequah, capital of the Cherokee Nation in what is now Oklahoma.
Tennessee, 2 towns:
(1) on Little Tennessee River a short distance above its junction with the main stream in east Tennessee;
(2) on an extreme head branch of Tuckasegee River, above the present Webster, NC
Toquo, on Little Tennessee River about the mouth of Toco Creek, Monroe County, TN
Tsiyahi, 3 towns:
(1) on a branch of Keowee River, near the present Cheochee, Oconee County, SC;
(2) a modern settlement on Cheowa River about Robbinsville, NC;
(3) a former settlement in Cades Cove, on Cover Creek Blount County, TN.
Ustanali; according to Purcell's map, there was a town of this name different from those already given, on the upper waters of Cheowa River, Graham County, NC

Besides the above, the following settlements are given by Mooney and other writers:
Amahyaski, location unknown.
Amkalali, location unknown.
Amohi, location unknown.
Anisgayayi, a traditional town on Valley River, Cherokee County, NC
Anuyi, location unknown.
Aquohee, perhaps at the site of Fort Scott, on Nantahala River, Macon County, NC
Atsiniyi, location unknown.
Aumuchee, location unknown.
Ayahliyi, location unknown.
Big Island, on Big Island, in Little Tennessee River a short distance below the mouth of Tellico River.
Briertonn, on Nantahala River about the mouth of Briertown Creek, Macon County, NC.
Broomtown, location unknown.
Brown's Village, location unknown.
Buffalo Fish, location unknown.
Canuga, 2 towns:
(1) apparently on Keowee River, SC;
(2) a traditional town on Pigeon River probably near Waynesville, Haywood County, NC
Catatoga, on Cartoogaja Creek of Little Tennessee River above Franklin, NC
Chagee, near the mouth of Chatooga Creek of Tugaloo River at or near Fort Madison, southwest Oconee County, SC
Cheesoheha, on a branch of Savannah River in upper South Carolina.
Chewase, on a branch of Tennessee River in East Tennessee.
Chicherohe, on War Woman Creek in the northwestern part of Rabun County, GA.
Chickamauga, a temporary settlement on Chickamauga Creek near Chattanooga.
Conisca, on a branch of Tennessee River.
Conontoroy, an "out town." location unknown.
Conoross, on Conoross Creek which enters Keowee or Seneca River from the west in Anderson County, SC
Coyatee, on Little Tennessee River about 10 miles below the Tellico, about the present Coytee, Loudon County, TN.
Crayfish Town, in upper Georgia.
Creek Path, with Creeks and Shawnee at Gunker's Landing, AL.
Crowmocker, on Battle Creek which falls into Tennessee River below Chattanooga, TN.
Crow Town, on the left bank of Tennessee River near the mouth of Raccoon Creek, Cherokee County, AL.
Cuclon, an unidentified town.
Cusawatee on lower Coosawatee River in Gordon County, GA.
Dulastunyi, on Nottely River, Cherokee County, N.C., near the Georgia line.
Dustayalunyi, about the mouth of Shooting Creek, an affluent of Hiwassee River, near Hayesville, Clay County, NC
Ecochee, on a head stream of Savannah River in northwest South Carolina or northeast Georgia.
Elakulsi, in northern Georgia.
Etowah, 2 towns:
(1) on Etowah River about the present Hightower, Forsyth County, GA.;
(2) a possible settlement on Hightower Creek of Hiwassee River, Towns County, GA.
Euforsee, location unknown.
Fightingtown, on Fightingtown Creek, near Morgantown, Fannin County, GA.
Frogtown, on a creek of the same name, north of Dahlonega, Lumpkin County, GA
Guhlaniyi, occupied by Cherokee and Natchez, at the junction of Brasstown Creek with Hiwassee River a short distance above Murphy, NC
Gusti, traditional, on Tennessee River near Kingston, Roane County, TN.
Halfway Town, about halfway between Sitiku and Chilhowee on Little Tennessee River about the boundary of Monroe and Loudon Counties, TN
Hemptown, on Hemptown Creek near Morgantown, Fannin County, GA.
Hickory Log, on Etowah River a short distance above Canton, Cherokee County, GA.
High Tower Forks, probably one of the places called Etowah.
Ikatikunahita, on Long Swamp Creek about the boundary of Forsyth and Cherokee Counties, GA.
Ivy Log, on Ivy Log Creek, Union County, GA
Johnstown, on the upper waters of Chattahoochee River and probably in the northern part of Hall County, GA.
Kulanunyi, a district or town laid off on the Eastern Cherokee Reserve in Swain and Jackson Counties, NC
Kanastunyi, on the headwaters of French Broad River near Brevard in Transylvania County, NC, also possibly a second on Hiwassee River.
Kansaki, 4 towns:
(1) on Tuckasegee River a short distance above the present Webster in Jackson County, NC;
(2) on the lower course of Canasauga Creek in Polk County, TN.;
(3) at the junction of Conusauga and Coosawatee Rivers, the later site of New Echota, Gordon County, GA;
(4) mentioned in the De Soto narratives but perhaps identical with No. (2).
Kanutaluhi, in northern Georgia.
Kawanunyi, about the present Ducktown, Polk County, TN.
Kuhlahi, in upper Georgia.
Kulahiy, in northeastern Georgia near Currahee Mountain.
Leatherwood, at or near Leatherwood in the northern part of Franklin County, GA
Long Island, at the Long Island in Tennessee River on the Tennessee - Georgia line.
Lookout Mountain Town, at or near the present Trenton, Dade County, GA
Naguchee, about the junction of Soquee and Sautee Rivers in Nacoochee Valley at the head of Chattahoochce River, Habersham County, GA
Nanatlugunvi, traditional, on the site of Jonesboro, Washington County, TN
Nantahala (see Briertown).
Nickajack, on the south bank of Tennessee River in Marion County, TN
Nununyi, on Oconaluftee River near Cherokee, Swain County, NC
Ocoee, on Ocoee River near its junction with the Hiwassee, about Benton, Polk County, TN
Oconaluftee, probably at the present Birdtown, on the Eastern Cherokee Reservation Jackson & Swain Counties, NC
Ooltewah, about the present Ooltewah, on Ooltewah Creck, James County, TN
Oothealoga, on Oothealoga (Ougillogy) Creek of Oostannula River near Calhoun, Gordon County, GA
Paint Town, on lower Soco Creek, within the reservation in Jackson and Swain Counties, NC
Pine Log, on Pine Log Creek in Bartow County, GA
Quacoshatchee, in northwest Pickens County, SC
Qualla, agency of the Eastern Cherokee on a branch of Soco River, Jackson County, NC
Quanusee, location unknown.
Rabbit Trap, in upper Georgia.
Red Bank, on Etowah River, at or near Ganton, Cherokee County, GA
Red Clay, on Oconaluftee River in Swain County, NC, Eastern Cherokee Reservation, Swain County, NC.
Running Water, on the southeast bank of Tennessee River below Chattanooga, near the northwestern Georgia line and 4 miles above Nickajack.
Sanderstown, in northeastern Alabama.
Selikwayi, on Sallacoa Creek probably at or near the present Sallacoa, Cherokee County, GA
Seneca, on Keowee River about the mouth of Conneross Creek in Oconee County, SC
Setsi, traditional, on the south side of Valley River, about 3 miles below Valleytown, Cherokee County, NC
Skeinah, on Toccoa River, Fannin County, GA
Soquee, on Soquee River, near Clarksville, Habersham County, GA
Spikebuck Town, on Hiwassee River at or near Havesville, Clay County, NC
Spring Place, a mission station in Murray County, GA
Standing Peach Tree, on Chattahoochee River, at the mouth of Peachtree Creek, northwest of Atlanta, GA
Sutali, on Etowah River, probably in southwestern Cherokee County, GA
Sunanee, on Chattahoochee River about the present Suwanee, Gwinnett County, GA
Tagwahi, 3 towns:
(1) on Toccoa Creek east of Clarkesville, Habersham County, GA;
(2) on Toccoa or Ocoee River about the present Toccoa in Fannin County, GA,
(3) perhaps on Persimmon Creek which enters Hiwassee River some distance below Murphy, Cherokee County. NC
Takwashnaw, a Lower Cherokee town.
Talahi, location unknown.
Talaniyi, in upper Georgia.
Talking Rock, on Talking Rock Creek, an affluent of Coosawattee River, GA
Tasetsi, on the extreme head of Hiwassee River in Towns County, GA
Taskigi, 3 towns occupied originally by Tuskegee Indians (see Alabama):
(1) on Little Tennessee River above the junction of the Tellico, Monroe County, TN;
(2) on the north bank of Tennessee River just below Chattanooga, TN;
(3) perhaps on Tuskegee Creck of Little Tennessee River near Robbinsville, Graham County, NC
Tikwalitsi, on Tuckasegee River at Bryson City, Swain County, NC
Tlanusiyi, at the junction of Hiwssee and Valley Rivers on the site of Murphy, NC
Tocax, location unknown, perhaps connected with Toxaway or Toccoa.
Torsalla, one of the Keowee towns.
Tricentee, one of the Keowee towns.
Tsilaluhi, on a small branch of Brasstown Creek of Hiwassee River, just within the lines of Towns County, GA
Tsiskwahi, a district or town in the Eastern Cherokee Reservation, Swain County, NC
Tsistetsiyi, on South Mouse Creek, a branch of Hiwassee River in Bradley County, TN
Tistuyi, on the north bank of Hiwassec River at the entrance of Chestua Creek, in Polk County, TN, at one time occupied by Yuchi tribe.
Tsudinuntiyi, on lower Nantahala River, in Macon County, NC
Tucharechee, location unknown.
Tuckasegee, 2 towns:
(1) about the junction of the two forks of Tuckasegee River, above Webster, Jackson County, NC;
(2) on a branch of Brasstown Creek of Hiwussee River, in Towns County, GA
Turkeytown, on the west bank of Coosa River opposite the present Center, Cherokee County, AL
Turniptown, on Turniptown Creek above Ellijay, Gilmer County, GA
Turtletown, in upper Georgia.
Tusquittah, on Tusquittee Creek near Hayesville, Clay County, NC
Two Runs, on Etowah River at the crossing of the old Indian trail between Coosa and Tugaloo Rivers, Bartow County, GA
Ustisti, one of the Lower Towns.
Valleytown, at Valleytown on Valley River, Cherokee County, NC
Wahyahi, on upper Soco Creek on the Eastern Cherokee Reservation, Jackson County, NC
Wasasa's Village, on Brown's Creek, a southern affluent of Tennessee River in northern Alabama.
Willstown, on Wills Creek, below Fort Payne, De Kalb County, AL

Uploaded by: Paul R. Sarrett, Jr.
24 Mar. 1995
Compuserve ID: 75264,3241
Email: PRSJR@aol.com



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